Thieme A, Thürling M, Galuba J, Burciu R, Göricke S, Beck A, Aurich V, Wondzinski E, Siebler M, Gerwig M, Bracha V, Timmann D
Storage of a naturally acquired conditioned response is impaired in patients with cerebellar degeneration
Brain 2013; doi: 10.1093/brain/awt107
Abstract Previous findings suggested that the human cerebellum is involved in the acquisition but not the long-term retention of motor associations. The finding of preserved retention in cerebellar patients was fundamentally different from animal studies which show that both acquisition and retention depends on the integrity of the cerebellum. The present study investigated whether retention had been preserved because critical regions of the cerebellum were spared. Visual threat eyeblink responses (VTER), that is the anticipatory closure of the eyes to visual threats, have previously been found to be naturally acquired conditioned responses. Because acquisition is known to take place in very early childhood, VTERs can be used to test retention in patients with adult onset cerebellar disease. VTERs were tested in 19 adult patients with cerebellar degeneration, 23 adult patients with focal cerebellar lesions due to stroke, 24 age-matched controls, and a young control group (n = 31). High-resolution structural MRIs were acquired in patients to perform lesion-symptom mapping. Voxel-based morphometry was performed in patients with cerebellar degeneration, and subtraction analysis in patients with focal disease. VTERs were found to be significantly reduced in patients with cerebellar degeneration. VTERs were also reduced in patients with focal disease, but to a lesser extent. In the focal group, reduction was most prominent in patients with acute disease. VTERs declined with age. In patients with cerebellar degeneration the degree of cerebellar atrophy was positively correlated with the reduction of conditioned responses. Voxel-based morphometry showed that two main regions within the superior and inferior parts of the posterior cerebellar cortex contributed to retention bilaterally. Involvement of the more inferior parts of the posterior lobe was further supported by subtraction analysis in focal cerebellar patients. The present findings show that the human cerebellar cortex is involved in long-term storage of learned responses.

K. E. Grund, R. Ingenpaß, F. Durst, U. Schweizer, M. Vietz, V. Aurich
Neuartiges Hands-on-Phantom für das realistische Training der gesamten diagnostischen und therapeutischen ERCP
Endo heute 2012; 25: 1-4
Abstract With the diminishing of diagnostic ERCPs - due to the increasing impact of MRCP - education and training of (interventional) ERCP becomes more and more difficult. So the demands for structured and effective hands-on training become most relevant.To overcome the obvious problems and disadvantages of the available training phantoms (living animals, biosimulators, plastic phantoms, VR-simulators), a new hands-on training simulator was developed. This new phantom allows a realistic hands-on training of all ERCP procedures including all interventions like papillotomy, treatment of stenoses, stent implantation, lithotripsy, stone removal and special manoevers and offers with its human anatomy, avoidance of animal material and reality-like visual endoscopic appearance as well as realistic haptics and x-ray possibilities a new quality of high-end endoscopic training.

Maderwald S., Thürling M., Küper M., Theysohn N., Müller O., Beck A., Aurich V., Ladd M., Timmann D.
Direct visualization of cerebellar nuclei in patients with focal cerebellar lesions and its application for lesion-symptom mapping
Neuroimage, accepted dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.07.063
Abstract As yet, human cerebellarlesion studies have not taken advantage of direct magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the cerebellarnuclei in individual patients. In the present study, susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) was used to visualize lesions of the dentate nuclei in patients with chronic focallesions. Fifteen patients with cerebellarlesions either due to stroke or tumor surgery underwent SWI imaging using a 1.5 T MRI scanner. Dentate nuclei were seen as hypointensities in all patients. Three of the patients underwent additional SWI imaging at 3 T and 7 T. Compared to 1.5 T, corrugation of the dentate wall was seen with greater precision and the dorsal, iron-poorer part was seen more fully. Lesion-symptommapping was performed based on the 1.5 T MR images. Patients were divided into two groups with and without upper limb ataxia. A region-of-interest-(ROI)-driven normalization technique was used which had initially been developed by Diedrichsen et al. (2011) for functional MRI (fMRI) of the dentate nuclei. Compared to conventional normalization of the cerebellum, overlap of dentate lesions improved and lead to increased sensitivity of lesion-symptom maps. Subtraction analysis revealed that the more dorsal and rostral parts of the dentate nuclei were related to upper limb ataxia. Findings were in good accordance with the dentate hand area shown in recent fMRI studies. These data provide evidence that direct identification of dentate lesions together with the ROI-driven normalization technique allows for improved lesion-symptommapping at the level of the cerebellarnuclei already at conventional 1.5 T MRI field strength.

Katrin Weier, Andreas Beck, Stefano Magon, Michael Amann, Yvonne Naegelin, Iris K Penner, Markus Thürling, Volker Aurich, Tobias Derfuss, Ernst-Wilhelm Radue, Christoph Stippich, Ludwig Kappos, Dagmar Timmann, Till Sprenger
Evaluation of a new approach for semi-automatic segmentation of the cerebellum in patients with multiple sclerosis
Journal of Neurology, DOI 10.1007/s00415-012-6569-4, Published online, 2012-06-19
Abstract Cerebellar dysfunction is an important contributor to disability in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), however, few in vivo studies focusing on cerebellar volume loss so far. This relates to technical challenges regarding the segmentation of the cerebellum. In this study, we evaluated the semi-automatic ECCET software for performing cerebellar volumetry using high-resolution 3D T1-MR scans in patients with MS and healthy volunteers. We performed test-retest as well as inter-observer reliability testing of cerebellar segmentation and compared the ECCET results with a fully automatic cerebellar segmentation using the FreeSurfer software pipeline in 15 MS patients. In a pilot matched pair analysis with another data set from 15 relapsing-remitting MS patients and 15 age and sex matched healthy controls (HC) we assessed the feasibility of the ECCET approach to detect MS related cerebellar volume differences. For total normalized cerebellar volume as well as grey and white matter volumes intrarater (Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC)= 0.99, 95%-CI = 0.98-0.99) and interobserver agreement (ICC= 0.98, 95%-CI = 0.74-0.99) were strong. Comparison between ECCET and FreeSurfer results yielded likewise a good intraclass correlation (ICC = 0.86, 95%-CI = 0.58-0.95). Compared to HC, MS patients had significantly reduced normalized total brain, total cerebellar and grey matter volumes (p0.05). ECCET is a suitable tool for cerebellar segmentation showing excellent test-retest and inter- observer reliability. Our matched pair analysis between MS patients and healthy volunteers suggests that the method is sensitive and reliable in detecting cerebellar atrophy in MS.

Gerwig M, Guberina H, Eßer AC, Siebler M, Schoch B, Frings M, Kolb FP, Aurich V, Beck A, Forsting M, Timmann D.
Evaluation of multiple-session delay eyeblink conditioning comparing patients with focal cerebellar lesions and cerebellar degeneration.
Behav Brain Res. 2010 Apr 10.

Rabe K, Livne O, Gizewski ER, Aurich V, Beck A, Timmann D, Donchin O.
Adaptation to visuomotor rotation and force field perturbation is correlated to different brain areas in patients with cerebellar degeneration.
J Neurophysiol, 101: 1961-1971, 2009

Tobias Heimann, Bram van Ginneken, Martin Styner, Yulia Arzhaeva, Volker Aurich, Christian Bauer, Andreas Beck, Christoph Becker, Reinhard Beichel, György Bekes, Fernando Bello, Gerd Binnig, Horst Bischof, Alexander Bornik, Peter M. M. Cashman, Ying Chi, Andrés Córdova, Benoit M. Dawant, Márta Fidrich, Jacob Furst, Daisuke Furukawa, Lars Grenacher, Joachim Hornegger, Dagmar Kainmüller, Richard I. Kitney, Hidefumi Kobatake, Hans Lamecker, Thomas Lange, Jeongjin Lee, Brian Lennon, Rui Li, Senhu Li, Hans-Peter Meinzer, Gábor Németh, Daniela S. Raicu, Anne-Mareike Rau, Eva van Rikxoort, Mikaël Rousson, László ́ Ruskó́ , Kinda A. Saddi, Günter Schmidt, Dieter Seghers, Akinobu Shimizu, Pieter Slagmolen, Erich Sorantin, Grzegorz Soza, Ruchaneewan Susomboon, Jonathan M. Waite, Andreas Wimmer, Ivo Wolf
Comparison and Evaluation of Methods for Liver Segmentation from CT datasets
IEEE Trans Med Imaging, 2009 Aug;28(8):1251-65.

M Gerwig, A Eßer, H Guberina, M Frings, F Kolb, M Forsting, V Aurich, A Beck, D Timmann
Trace eyeblink conditioning in patients with cerebellar degeneration: comparison of short and long trace intervals.
Exp Brain Res. 2008 Feb 6; : 18253726 (P,S,E,B,D)
Abstract To elucidate whether the cerebellar cortex may contribute to trace eyeblink conditioning in humans, eight patients with degenerative cerebellar disorders (four with sporadic adult onset ataxia, three with autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia type III and one with spinocerebellar ataxia type 6) and eight age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects were investigated. Individual high resolution three-dimensional MRI data sets were acquired. As revealed by volumetric measurements of the cerebellum using ECCET software, patients showed cerebellar atrophy to various degrees. No abnormalities were observed in the control subjects. Eyeblink conditioning was performed twice using a tone of 40 ms as conditioned stimulus, followed by a short (400 ms) and a long (1,000 ms) trace interval and an air-puff of 100 ms as unconditioned stimulus. Using the short trace interval, eyeblink conditioning was significantly impaired in cerebellar patients compared to controls, even in those who fulfilled criteria of awareness. Using the long trace interval no significant group differences could be observed. The present findings of impaired trace eyeblink acquisition in patients with cortical cerebellar degeneration suggest that the cerebellar cortex in humans, in addition to the interposed nucleus, is involved in trace eyeblink conditioning, if the trace interval is relatively short. Using a long trace interval, the cerebellum appears to be less important.

B Brandauer; J Hermsdörfer; A Beck; V Aurich; E R Gizewski; C Marquardt; D Timmann
Impairments of prehension kinematics and grasping forces in patients with cerebellar degeneration and the relationship to cerebellar atrophy.
Clin Neurophysiol 119, 2528 (2008)

Albena Dimitrova, Marcus Gerwig, Beate Brol, Elke R Gizewski, Michael Forsting, Andreas Beck, Volker Aurich, Florian P Kolb, Dagmar Timmann
Correlation of cerebellar volume with eyeblink conditioning in healthy subjects and in patients with cerebellar cortical degeneration.
Brain Res. 2008 Jan 26; Band 1198:73-84

C. Jacoby, Y.C. Böring, A. Beck, A. Zernecke, V. Aurich, C. Weber, J. Schrader, U. Flögel
Dynamic Changes in Murine Vessel Geometry Assessed by High Resolution Magnetic Resonance Angiography: a 9.4 T Study.
Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 2008, 28(3):637-645

Turowski B; Hänggi D; Beck A; Aurich V; Steiger H J; Moedder U
New angiographic measurement tool for analysis of small cerebral vessels: application to a subarachnoid haemorrhage model in the rat.
Neuroradiology 2007;49(2):129-37.

B. Turowski, D. Haenggi, J. Wittsack, A. Beck, V. Aurich
Automatisierte Analyse von Parameterbildern der Hirnperfusion — Computerized Analysis of Brain Perfusion Parameter Images
Fortschr Roentgenstr 2007; 179:525-529

A. Dimitrova, D. Zeljko, F. Schwarze, C. Redies, M. Maschke, M. Gerwig M. Frings A. Beck, V. Aurich, M. Forsting, D. Timmann
Probabilistic 3D MRI atlas of the human cerebellar dentate/interposed nuclei
NeuroImage 2006, 30:12-25

B. Turowski, D. Hänggi, A. Beck, V. Aurich, H. Steiger, U. Mödder
New angiographic measurement tool for analysis of small cerebral vessels: application to a subarachnoid haemorrhage model in the rat.
Neuroradiology. 2006 Nov 17.

Andersen Kjel; Vogt Christoph; Blondin Dirk; Beck Andreas; Heinen Wolfram; Aurich Volker; Häussinger Dieter; Mödder Ulrich; Cohnen Mathias
Multi-detector CT-colonography in inflammatory bowel disease: prospective analysis of CT-findings to high-resolution video colonoscopy.
European journal of radiology 2006;58(1):140-6.

M. Branschofsky, C. Vogt, V. Aurich, A. Beck, U. Mödder, M. Cohnen
Feasibility of ultra-low-dose multi-detector-row CT-colonography: detection of artificial endoluminal lesions in an in-vitro-model with optimization of image quality using a noise reduction filter algorithm.
Eur. J. Med. Res. 2006 Jan 31;11 (1):13-19.

A Dimitrova, D Zeljko, F Schwarze, M Maschke, M Gerwig, M Frings, A Beck, V Aurich, M Forsting, D Timmann
Probabilistic 3D MRI atlas of the human cerebellar dentate/interposed nuclei.
Neuroimage. 2005 Oct 25; : 16257240 (P,S,E,B,D)

S. Richter, A. Dimitrova, M. Maschke, E. Gizewski, A. Beck, V. Aurich, D. Timmann
Degree of cerebellar ataxia correlates with 3D-MRI based cerebellar volume in pure cerebellar degeneration
Eur. Neurol. 2005 54: 23-27

K. Andersen, D. Blondin, A. Beck, V. Aurich, C. Vogt, U. Mödder, M. Cohnen
Evaluation zwei verschiedener Softwarelösungen zur Auswertung von CT-Kolonographien
Fortschr Röntgenstr. 2005 Sep;177(9):1227-1234

K. Andersen, C. Vogt, D. Blondin, A. Beck, W. Heinen, V. Aurich, D. Häussinger, U. Mödder, M. Cohnen
Multi-detector CT-colonography in inflammatory bowel disease: Prospective analysis of CT-findings to high-resolution video colonoscopy.
Eur. J. Radiol. 2005 Dec 5.

V.R. Stoldt, J. Peveling, R. Loncar, A. Beck, V. Aurich, R.E. Scharf
Evaluation of platelet thrombus formation under flow.
Blood. 106 (11):70B-71B, 2005.

S. Richter, O. Kaiser, C. Hein-Kropp, A. Dimitrova, A. Beck, V. Aurich, W. Ziegler, D. Timmann
Preserved verb generation in patients with cerebellar atrophy
Neuropsychologia 2004, 42: 1235-1246

S. Richter, K. Matthies, T. Ohde, A. Dimitrova, E. Gizewski, V. Aurich, A. Beck, D. Timmann
Stimulus-response vs. stimulus-stimulus-response learning in cerebellar patients
Exp. Brain Res. 2004, 158: 438-449

C. Vogt, M. Cohnen, A. Beck, S. vom Dahl, V. Aurich, U. Mödder, D. Häussinger
Detection of colorectal polyps by multi-slice CT colonography in ultra-low-dose technique: comparison with high-resolution video-colonoscopy
Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 2004 Aug;60(2):201-9

C. Vogt, M. Cohnen, A. Beck, V. Aurich, U. Mödder, D. Häussinger
Virtuelle Kolographie: Aktueller Stand in der Diagnostik kolorektaler Läsionen.
Coloproctology 2004, 1:40-44

M. Cohnen, C. Vogt, A. Beck, K. Andersen, W. Heinen, S. vom Dahl, V. Aurich, U. Mödder, D. Häussinger
Feasabiltity of Multi-Slice CT-Colonography in Ultra-Low-Dose Technique in the Detection of Colorectal Lesions: Comparison with High-Resolution Video Colonoscopy.
Am. J. Roentgenol. 2004; 183:1355-1359

C. Vogt, M. Cohnen, A. Beck, V. Aurich, U. Mödder, D. Häussinger
Virtual colonography
Med. Klin. (Munich). 2003 Dec 15; 98(12):700-11

G.-F. Rust, V. Aurich, M. Reiser
Noise/Dose reduction and image improvements in screening virtual colonoscopy with tube currents of 20 mAs with nonlinear Gaussian filter chains.
Proc SPIE Med Imaging. 2002;4683:186-197.

M. Cohnen, C. Vogt, V. Aurich, A. Beck, D. Häussinger, U. Mödder
Multi-Slice-CT-Colonography in Low-Dose Technique - Preliminary results
Fortschr. Röntgenstr. 2002; 174(7): 835-838

G. Winkler, K. Hahn, A. Martin, K. Rodenacker, V. Aurich
Noise Reduction in Images: Some Recent Edge-Preserving Methods.
Pattern Recognition and Image Analysis, Vol.9, No. 4, 1999, 749-766.